FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions

Submit your question to ICAP. Only confirmed registered users can submit a question. If you are not registered, click here to start. Submitted questions will be routed to ICAP Coordinators Edward K. L. Chan (echan@ufl.edu) and Luis E. C. Andrade (luis.andrade@unifesp.br). Simple questions will be answered within 24 hours. Complex questions will be routed to several ICAP members either for a consensus or to provide different viewpoints and it may take 72 hours to 2 weeks for an answer. Note that some questions/answers may be edited and may appear in the FAQ section. Please note that we do not offer clinical advice on individual patients as it is unethical for us to provide medical advice. Patient may consider referring his/her doctor to the website.

Discrepancy in HEp-2 IFA and western blot data. How do you explain the detection of antibodies by western blot (WB) that are not related to the pattern observed in HEp-2 cells by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA)? 
Anti-Ro52 antibodies with an AC pattern? Do anti-Ro52 antibodies show any staining pattern matching with known ICAP AC designation? I have a patient with exclusive anti-Ro52 +++ (strong) in immunoblot and I do not know which AC pattern it should correspond to. AC-4? AC-XX?
The pseudo-DFS pattern? Some samples yield a nuclear speckled pattern with similar staining at the mitotic chromatin (metaphase and anaphase), very similar to AC-2 (nuclear dense fine speckled pattern), but do not yield a positive result in immunoassays specific for anti-DFS70 antibodies. How should I report such pattern since it is not exactly the AC-2 pattern and there is no anti-DFS70 reactivity? Is this pattern defined by ICAP?
Cutting corners in ANA titer reporting. I want your comment about my way of ANA titration and reporting. Typically I perform only 2 dilutions at 1/40 and 1/160. However, I report titers from negative at 1/40, 1/40, 1/80, 1/160, and further report estimated titers of 1/320, 1/640, 1/1280 and over 1/1280 based on signal intensity. I think I can accurately estimate the titers just from the above 2 dilutions.
Issue with increasing UV light intensity. I want to clarify when increasing the intensity of UV light, ANA-negative samples may become visible or positive. How to deal with this issue?

Nuclear periphery positive and yet center negative? Some time we observed periphery of the nucleus is stained like positive and center of the nucleus is negative.what is the reason for that ?
Double IFA protocol. What is the protocol for double IFA that can help to identify, for example, a subcellular compartment such as the nucleolus?

Cytoplasmic positive alone is ANA positive or negative? Hello, I would appreciate if you can share with me how to report cytoplasmic staining (without nuclear staining) as ANA positive or negative?

Ro/SS-A and La/SS-B negative in HEp-2 IFA. Can I get positive Ro and La with negative ANA IFA? How to explain if yes?

ANA titer reporting. We would also like recommendations on the report of ANA results. For example, when report such as 1:80 dilution AC-1 homogeneous 4+ are made, is it correct to report in crosses (e.g. +++) or only the dilution and the pattern?
Fine Art with AC-29. Is it critical that all five elements of the subcellular domains associated with the AC-29 pattern be evaluated in order to correctly classify an individual serum as AC-29? In other words, can it be classified as AC-29 with staining of only some of the five elements?
Online since 19 May 2015